Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning - Research Paper Example Although the disorder is present in both sexes, it is most common in males. ADHD is a disorder where the child has problems with being highly impulsive, exhibiting over-activity or inattentiveness, or some combination of these three aspects (PubMed Health). ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder in children and the most well studied (Myayes, Bagwell and Erkulwater 1). Children with ADHD tend to have a much higher level of activity than normal children and often act impulsively. The principle of ADHD is heavily debated, as all children show some degree of this behavior, especially in early age (Myayes, Bagwell and Erkulwater 15-16). ADHD is a complex disorder and the exact symptoms that children show can differ significantly from one another (Lougy and Rosenthal 22). This case study considers Alice, a ten-year-old girl who has ADHD and experiences considerable learning difficulties and problems establishing friendships as the result of this disorder. Literature Review Diagnosis of ADHD ADHD has a range of symptoms, which are generally grouped into three categories. These are impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and lack of attention. There are nine diagnostic symptoms for inattentiveness, five for hyperactivity and three for impulsivity. ADHD is a difficult disorder to diagnose, as many of the behaviors can be associated with other conditions as well as normal behaviors that occur as part of childhood. The complexity of the symptoms means that there are many children who are incorrectly diagnosed with ADHD, and others who have ADHD but have not been diagnosed. One of the difficulties in diagnosing ADHD is that the symptoms are only evident at some points in time, most commonly during school hours. A child with ADHD generally does not show the symptoms during a physicianâ€™s visit, and so other people must be the source of this information (Myayes, Bagwell and Erkulwater 5). In fact, children are often first diagnosed with ADHD when they enter school because many of the behaviors associated with ADHD do not appear to be abnormal without the increased demands on attention, sitting still and following a direction that is present in the school environment (Lougy and Rosenthal 22). In addition, ADHD often co-occurs with other disorders, and some of the behavioral symptoms that are part of ADHD also occur as part of other disorders (Myayes, Bagwell and Erkulwater 20).To assist in diagnosis; the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the following guidelines. That child has at least six symptoms from either impulsivity and hyperactivity, or six from the attention category, some of which began prior to seven years of age.
Hybrid electric vehicles are one of the applications of hybrid technology in real modern life; in which itâ€™s currently a high demand technology and is growing rapidly. Although hybrid vehicles werenâ€™t the latest type of transportation technology to be discovered, since they appeared earlier than gasoline vehicles, because of the cost of research and technology they disappeared a prosperous century of gasoline vehicles began. Nowadays, when the world needs green transportation because of high fossil costs and political reasons, hybrid vehicles returned and development into that type of technology is kicking back to full speed.
Hybrid vehicles are the combination between electric engines and gasoline engines. Therefore, they inherit all the characteristics of traditional vehicle and add new functions of electric motor to help the vehicles save energy as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Many vehicle manufacturers such as BMW, GMC, and Toyota are applying hybrid technology in producing their cars. One of the main reasons that hybrid vehicle are not as popular as regular gas powered vehicles is their prices. Most consumers donâ€™t want to pay the extra $5,000- to $8,000 price tag to buy a vehicle that they donâ€™t see the instant benefits of.
Nevertheless hybrid vehicles will bring the benefits to their users and the environment, but not immediately when they buy the Hybrid vehicle. While in use, Hybrid vehicles will reduce the fuel consumption by an average of 42% which in return would be also good for the environment as it reduces greenhouse gas emissions by about 42% than the usual amount. However, in addition to what Hybrid vehicle offers the public in money savings by consuming less fuel and supporting a greener environment, it also made it possible for the public to accept alternative power sources for their vehicles.
Also, hybrid technology has helped expand the research into battery power, battery life and battery size which helped in emerging of newer technology of fully electrical cars that doesnâ€™t use any gas, for example: The Nissan Leaf. In the meanwhile, currently the available fully electrical vehicles (Nissan Leaf) on the market have advantages of totally being gas independent, and faster acceleration than some of the hybrid cars (I personally test drove the Nissan Leaf both on city streets and on the highway and I think it accelerated a lot better than my 2010 Toyota Prius hybrid.
). In my opinion the technology still not fully developed to be the most reliable form of transportation for an individual or a house hold use, since you canâ€™t drive more than 100 miles per full charge as advertised; which I am sure itâ€™s a little bit less based on consumers review (around 75-85 miles per full charge. ) In the near future I can imagine that fully electrical cars be more reliable and go in between 700 to1000 miles per full charge, of course it will take its course of development just like any other new technology that starts small and gets bigger by time.
I imagine in the next couple years electrical cars will be able to go anywhere in between 100 to 200 miles per charge, then in the following few years from 200 to 300 miles per full charge, etcâ€¦ Furthermore, in my opinion I think that gas engines are a thing of the past and I can see in the future Hybrid engines and electrical engines replacing everything that we are using today, from gas powered vehicles to airplanes, from motorcycles to scooters and lawnmower to children toys.
In conclusion, the human race is using new technologies to try to fix the harm they caused the environment by creating products that donâ€™t contribute to the pollution of our environment and many consumers hope that hybrid and electrical motors technology would help reduce the pollution and contribute to help save our environment.
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